Despite the tensions and rhetoric, Europe and Iran have to date remained committed to preserve the JCPOA. The practical behind-the-scenes work to keep diplomacy on track is exemplified by the state-owned entity INSTEX, intended to alleviate restrictions on sanctions-exempt humanitarian trade. These restrictions stem from the reluctance of European companies and banks to conduct cross-border transactions with Iran due to a lack of clear guidance from the US Departments of State and Treasury. ...
Secondary sanctions have become a critical challenge for Europe, due to the Trump administration’s maximalist policy on Iran and its aggressive economic statecraft. Europe’s vulnerabilities mostly result from asymmetric interdependence with the US economy, due to the size of US markets and the global role of the US dollar. In future, states will likely weaponise economic interdependence with the EU to target countries that are more important to the European economy than Iran, such as China and Russia. European countries should demonstrate that, despite their economic interdependence with the US, they control EU foreign policy.The EU should begin to build up its deterrence and resilience against secondary sanctions, and prepare to adopt asymmetric countermeasures against any country that harms European interests through secondary sanctions.They should also attempt to bolster the global role of the euro and lead a robust international dialogue on the role of sanctions.
“Economic sanctions”, a mode of coercion in international relations resuscitated in recent years, has prompted renewed and lively scholarly interest in the subject. Why have such measures become so popular? One answer is that they “constitute a means of exerting international influence that is more powerful than diplomatic mediation but lies below the threshold of military intervention”. Another answer is that “they engage comparatively less internal political resistance than other candidate strategies […]. They do not generate sombre processions of body bags bringing home the mortal remains of the sons and daughters of constituents”, in other words, they cost little to the side imposing the sanctions. The notable predilection by the United States for economic sanctions, suggests that such a tool is particularly useful for economically powerful states that are themselves relatively immune to such measures.
Global rates of international research collaboration have increased sharply in recent decades.Iran’s international research collaboration rate rose over recent periods of increased sanctions; however, evidence suggests that factors other than economic restrictions may be influencing this. Iran’s publication rates have risen during recent periods of increased sanctions; however, its quantitative and qualitative metrics are discordant. Reasons for Iran’s publication discordance may include increased indexing of Iranian journals in scholarly databases, willingness of lower visibility journals to handle manuscripts with Iranian authors, widespread linkage of career advancement to science visibility indices, and others. The World Medical Association rejects academic sanctions or boycotts and calls on all national medical associations to resist the imposition of such restrictions by every means at their disposal.
The United States has over the past four decades imposed a wide range of economic sanctions to punish Iran for a number of undesired policies. While Trump administration officials continue to insist that food and medicine are exempt from US sanctions, and that sanctions do not hurt the Iranian people, evidence suggests that unilateral sanctions are collectively punishing the Iranian population by denying them adequate and reliable access to medicine.
U.S. civil society needs to include more global perspectives on the country’s foreign policy. U.S. citizens must become more aware that their votes have grave consequences beyond their country’s borders. Although U.S. citizens are equipped with various safety nets and enjoy economic and military global superiority, their elected administration’s foreign policy is a matter of life and death for the citizens of the other countries, especially in the Middle East. For the United States to truly honor its claims to protect human rights and moral integrity, these issues need to be included in the upcoming election debates.
The explosive growth in their use has prompted questions about how much is too much. ... The United States, as of this writing, has 7,967 sanctions in place.
The strategic Chabahar port project, being developed by India in Iran, is a separate exception and will not be impacted by US President Donald Trump's decision not to renew exemptions that let eight countries including India to buy Iranian oil without facing tough American sanctions, a State Department official said.
he United States on Monday demanded that buyers of Iranian oil stop purchases by May 1 or face sanctions, a move to choke off Tehran’s oil revenues which sent crude prices to six-month highs on fears of a potential supply crunch The Trump administration on Monday said it will not renew exemptions granted last year to buyers of Iranian oil, a more stringent than expected decision that caught several key importers who have been pleading with Washington to continue buying Iranian oil sanctions-free.
... "Sanctions is the first problem in our country and in our system. We can't transfer the money and make the preparations for surgery. It's a big problem for us," says Dr. Mohammad Hassan Bani Asad, managing director of the Gandhi Hotel Hospital. "We have the procedures, but we don't have the instruments. It is very difficult for patients and maybe leads to death of some patients." ...