01 Apr 2013


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States’ safeguards commitments are being respected.

Most of the world’s non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State’s commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State’s national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material.

Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as ‘small quantities protocols’ or ‘SQPs’ and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system.

States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA’s efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA’s ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have also concluded additional protocols to their CSAs.

This publication is aimed at States with SQPs, and addresses obligations under CSAs, SQPs and additional protocols. It is primarily intended for State or regional authorities responsible for safeguards implementation (SRAs). Recognizing that SRAs often have responsibilities in areas other than safeguards, such as nuclear safety and security, the book highlights some possibilities for synergies among these disciplines.

The IAEA wishes to acknowledge the many individuals who contributed to the creation of this publication. The IAEA officer responsible for this publication was C. Mathews of the Division of Concepts and Planning.

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